Foundation Reference Articles and Books
For a foundation repair company, proper foundation repair begins with an understanding of the many factors that have influenced or may influence the structure. These factors include soil type, soil and water interaction, water flow patterns around the structure, land slope, land movement, land erosion, land slides, building site preparation, soil hydration at the time the foundation was poured, foundation design, wall and roof design, trees and vegetation, influence of neighboring structures, stability of retainer walls, dynamics of roofs and walls, building material flexibility (concrete, wood, brick, floor tile, roofing, bath tile) and finally foundation repair methods.
As one gains more knowledge of the factors influencing a foundation, it becomes evident that an all encompassing foundation evaluation would entail more research, evaluation and testing than most home owners are willing to pay.
In addition to the factors listed above, an all encompassing, cost prohibitive pre-repair foundation analysis might include:
- Soil testing for compactness, soil type and soil moisture content.
- Seismic tests to determine sub surface conditions including rock strata.
- Time studies over 1 to 2 years to measure foundation movement and establish trends.
- Blueprint review and analysis.
- Knowledge of the "as built condition" of the structure including: steel quality, concrete quality and thickness, and actual depth and location of beams.
- Analysis of current structural loading versus foundation design load assumptions.
For those who want to know more about the factors influencing foundation repair and house leveling, please refer to the books and articles listed below.
ACI: American Concrete Institute, Repairs of Concrete Structures-Assessments, methods and risks, Seminar Course Material, 1989.
Addison, Marshall B., "Living With Expansive Soils", UTA, Arlington, Texas, 1996.
ADSC: The International. Association of Foundation Drilling and DR: Deep Foundation Institute, Drilled Shaft Inspector's Manual, 1st Edition, ADSC, Dallas, 1988.
ADSC: The International Association of Foundation Drilling and Earth Retention, "As Seen on TV: ADSC South Central Chapter Leads Effort to Expand Use of Residential Drilled Foundations", Foundation Drilling Magazine, By Ted Ledgard, March/April, 1996
Ambrose, James, Simplified Design Of Building Foundations, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1988.
Anderson, Brent , "Understanding Soil Conditions", Foundation Contractor, June 1992.
ASCE: American Society of Civil Engineers, Geotechnical Special Publication No.15, Measured Performance of Shallow Foundations, May 9, 1
ASCE: American Society of Civil Engineers, REHABILITATION, RENOVATION, AND RECONSTRUCTION OF BUILDIINGS, February 14-15, 1985.
ASCE: American Society of Civil Engineers, Geotechnical Special Publication No. 50, FOUNDATION Upgrading and Repair, October 23-26, 1905.
ASCE: American Society of Civil Engineers, Practical Guidelines for the SELECTION, DESIGN and INSTALLATION of PILES, June 1984.
ASCE: American Society of Civil Engineers, Drilled Piers and Caissons II, May 1, 1985.
ASCE: American Society of Civil Engineers, Advances in Analysis of STRUCTURAL MASONRY, September 15-18, 1981
ASCE: American Society of Civil Engineers, Serviceability of Earth Retaining Structures, Geotechnical Special Publication No 42, October 9-13, 1994.
ASCE: American Society of Civil. Engineers, SO YOUR HOW IS BUILT ON EXPANSIVE SOILS, 1995.
Benes, Rob, "Designing and building retaining walls", Landscape and Irrigation, August, 1998
Becka, Holly, "Uphill Battle-Sliding home's owners want someone to pay", Dallas Morning News, May 27, 1997.
Brown, Robert W., RESIDENTIAL FOUNDATIONS- DESIGN, BEHAVIOR AND REPAIR, 2nd Edition, Van Nostrand
Brown, Robert W., FOUNDATION BEHAVIOR AND REPAIR, 2nd Filition, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1992.
Brown, Robert W., Practical Foundation Engineering Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996.
Carson, A. Briton, Foundation Construction, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1965
Cernica, John N., Geotechnical Engineering: Foundation Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1995.
Corley, Judith B. and Marsh, J.H. III and Susan M. Quiring, "Maintenance of Existing Foundations on Expansive Clay Soils", Home Construction Series, Texas A & M University,1985.
Day, Robert W., "Differential Movement Of Slab-On-Grade Structures", Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, Vol. 4, No, 4, November, 1990
Eastwood, David A. and Peverley, Richard W., "Development Of Design And Remedial Measures For Lightly-Loaded Structures Founded On Expansive Soils With Trees In Mind".
FEMA: Federal Emergency Management Agency, Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards: A Handbook, Applied Technology Council, April 1988.
Freeman, T.J. and Littlejohn, G.S. and Driscoll, Richard M., Has your house got Cracks, Institution of Civil Engineers and Building Rese Establishment, Thomas Telford House, I Heron Quay, London, England, 1994.
Garrett, Howard, "Trees and Shrubs to avoid in North Texas", Dallas Morning News, December 4, 1998.
Goodwin, Charles J and Segner, Robert 0. and Claycamp, Carrol D., and Quiring, Susan, "What Prospective Custom Homebuyer Should Know About Foundations", Home Construction Series, Texas A & M , 1985.
Greenfield, Steven J., and. Shen, C.K., Foundations In Problem Soils, PRENTICE HALL, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1992
Handy, Richard L., The Day The House Fell, ASCE Press, N York, New York, 1995.
Holtz, Wesley G.o and Hart, Stephen S., "Home Construction Shrinking And Swelling Soils", National Science Foundation, October, 1978.
Jones, D. Earl and Karen A., "Options for Building on Expansive Clay soils.",1986.
Koenig, Arthur S., "Slab-on-grade deflection: How much is too much?", 7th International Conference, Dallas, Texas, 1992
Kozicki, Paul, Engineering Foundation Package Designed To Perform In Areas With Potentially Active Clay Soils, G.E. Ground Engineering LTD, 1992.
LePatner, Barry B. and Johnson, Sidney M., STRUCTURAL AND FOUNDATION FAILURES, McGraw Hill, New York, 1982.
Liu, Cheng and Evett, Jack B., Soils and Foundations, 2nd Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1987.
Meehan, Richard L. and Lawrence B. Karp, California I-lousing Damage Related To Expansive Soils", Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, Vol. 8, No. 2, May 1994.
Meyer, Kirby T., "DEFINING FOUNDATION FAILURE", Fall Meeting of Texas Section of ASCE, 1991.
Mitchell, James K., and Raad, Lutfi, "Control Of Volume Changes In Expansive Earth Materials", FHA Workshop, December 1345, 1972.
Raabe, Steve, "Soil Problems Can be Curbed", Denver Post, February 3, 1994.
Rainger, Philip, Movement Control in the Fabric of Buildings, Nichols Publishing Co., New York, 1983
Warren, Susan, "Builders Could Do More to Avoid Foundation Problems, Critics Say", Texas Journal- Wall Street Journal, Wednesday, June 19, 1996.
Wilcox, F.E., "Everything you always wanted to know about foundations, but, were afraid to ask", 3rd printing, 1992.